Archive for Donald T. Critchlow

Were programs like Title X started to curb the population of certain people groups?

Posted in Black Genocide, Black Neighborhood, Blacks oppose Birth Control, Blacks protest abortionn, Ehrlich, Eugenics, Every Child a Wanted Child, Fannie Lou Hamer, Ford, Lader, Malcolm X, Margaret Sanger, Margaret Sanger and AES, Margaret Sanger on Segregation and sterilization, Planned Parenthood Blueprint, Planned Parenthood Free Birth Control, Planned Parenthood History, Planned Parenthood in minority community, Planned Parenthood Motto, Planned Parenthood Slogan, Planned Parenthood Tax Dollars, Planned Parenthood uses blacks, Planned Parenthood using blacks, Population Control, Population Council, Richard Nixon, Rockefeller, Samuel Yette, Saves Taxpayers, Tax Payer Funding of Abortion, Title X, Walt Disney with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 12, 2018 by saynsumthn

population, Black, abortion, Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Was there a sinister eugenics agenda behind so-called federally funded “population control” programs like Title X?  The program, which could be seen as a form of classism, is touted as a “family planning”program aimed at “helping” poor and low income Americans in limiting their families. But the question is, what motive was behind this push prior to Title X’s 1970 passage, and who were the key players? In this four part series, Live Action News hopes to answer those questions.

When the push to use government dollars to fund population control programs was introduced, there was heavy opposition from groups that saw the move as racist eugenics. The Population Council and Planned Parenthood, two of the main groups behind this move, were both founded with eugenic philosophies. Planned Parenthood even played a prominent role in recruiting an ideal Republican lawmaker — as readers will learn later in the series — whom they convinced to sponsor what has become known as the federal Title X Family Planning Program, which now funnels $60 million to the organization.

READ: Film documents Planned Parenthood’s history of Black genocide, eugenics

Leading up to this time, many within the Black community viewed government programs of population control as genocidal efforts aimed at limiting the births of Blacks and other minorities. This was not without justification, as detailed by Simone M. Caron’s research, “Birth Control and the Black Community in the 1960’s: Genocide or Power Politics?,” published by the Journal of Social History:

Certain segments of the black community mistrusted the underlying intention of both private and government efforts with respect to contraception. Some blacks in particular became skeptical of the increasing push for contraceptive dispersal in poor urban neighborhoods, accusing contraceptive proponents of promoting nothing less than “black genocide.”…

The incidence of increasing government involvement in contraception at the same time as the civil rights movement gained strength could be interpreted as a planned conspiracy to decrease the numbers of blacks and other racial minorities.

Leaders of the birth control movement even suggested that crime and health disparities within the Black community could be resolved by reducing the Black population. This kind of thinking aroused additional suspicion as calls for public health centers to disseminate birth control pills to the poor began to emerge.

Image: 1942 article urges family planning for Harlem (Image credit New York Times)

1942 article urges family planning for Harlem (Image credit New York Times)

In 1967, Black comedian Dick Gregory joined more than 1,100 Black delegates for the First National Conference on Black Power where he, along with others in the group, adopted a black power manifesto that called for the “refusal to accept birth control programs on the basis that they seek to exterminate Negroes,” among other demands, according to a July 24, 1967, New York Times report. Gregory and others viewed “government programs designed for poor Black folks” which emphasized birth control and abortion as, “designed to limit the black population.”

Image: 1967 First National Conference on Black Power

1967 First National Conference on Black Power

Image: 1967 First National Conference on Black Power refuse birth control

1967 First National Conference on Black Power refuse birth control

Journalist Samuel Yette, himself outspoken about the genocidal aspects of birth control, once wrote about noted civil rights activist Fannie Lou Hamer’s views in The Afro American – Apr 2, 1977, saying, “It is still a society in which an injured man must show his ability to pay before getting hospital services, but his daughter or wife can be aborted or fed birth control pills, at public expense….”

Image: Fannie Lou Hamer

Fannie Lou Hamer

In that same article, Yette, one of the first Black journalists to work for Newsweek, wrote, “Instead of seeking ways to feed the hungry, the back stage plan was to get the poor unwittingly to endorse a plan to eliminate from the society those who were hungry.”

Image: Samuel Yette and his book The Choice (Image credit Maafa21)

Samuel Yette and his book The Choice (Image credit Maafa21)

Yette went on to publish a book, “The Choice,” which exposed high level attempts of Black genocide through birth control, abortion, and additional means. Shortly after the publication, Yette was fired by Newsweek and claimed that his superiors told him that the “Nixon White House” wanted him out of Washington.

“The book dealt with things they did not want people to know about at the time,” Yette told the Tennessee Tribune, which he joined as a columnist, in 1996. “There were those well-placed in our government who were determined to have a final solution for the race issue in this country — not unlike Hitler’s ‘Final Solution’ for Jews 50 years earlier in Germany. I wrote this and documented it. It caused the Nixon White House to say to Newsweek in effect, ‘Don’t come back until you are rid of him.’”

Blacks were highly suspicious of anything that had to do with “control,” radical Black Muslim leader Malcolm X suggested. In 1962, Wylda B. Clowes, a Black field consultant for Planned Parenthood, and Mrs. Marian Hernandez, director of the Hannah Stone Center, met with Malcolm X to “discuss with him his group’s philosophy concerning family planning.” Memos from the meeting indicated that overpopulation discussions evoked questions on why major efforts to control population were directed toward “colored nations.” The Black Muslim leader asked if Planned Parenthood had anything to do with “birth control” and offered the suggestion that Planned Parenthood would probably be more successful if they used the term “family planning” instead of “birth control.”

His reason for this was simple. He stated that “people, particularly Negroes, would be more willing to plan than to be controlled….”

Image of memo

Planned Parenthood memo with Malcolm X

While Caron concludes that the Black community eventually accepted contraception, a look at the organizations behind the push for government funded “family planning” programs reveal that their initial concerns may have been spot on. Behind the scenes, population control groups — some with long ties to the eugenics movement, such as the Population Council, Planned Parenthood, the Hugh Moore Fund, the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and others  — were seeding the ground and calling for large sums of government money to be spent on so-called “family planning.”

Author Donald T. Critchlow, in his book, “Intended Consequences, Birth Control, Abortion and the Federal Government in Modern America,” notes that the Population Council took the lead, and had an annual budget of over $3 million by 1964. Ford and Rockefeller Foundation money, along with dollars from other eugenics organizations, were flooding the Population Council coffers by the millions.

The Population Council was founded in 1952 by John D. Rockefeller III, as Live Action News has previously documented. The group’s second president, Frederic Osborn, was a founding member of the American Eugenics Society. Osborn once wrote, “Eugenic goals are most likely attained under a name other than eugenics.” He also signed Margaret Sanger’s “Citizens Committee for Planned Parenthood,” published in her Birth Control Review in April of 1938. Some speculate that Planned Parenthood’s infamous slogan, “Every Child a Wanted Child,” may have originated with Osborn.

Image: Planned Parenthood Motto

Planned Parenthood Motto

These groups pushed the idea of a worldwide population crisis. The media joined in the fear mongering by publishing articles about the impending population crisis. Images of global starvation resulting in forced euthanasia and cannibalism were depicted in books such a Paul Ehrlich’s now discredited “The Population Bomb.”

Image: Population Bomb threatens world peace

Population Bomb threatens world peace

On-screen gloom and doom propaganda was also being disseminated.

One film, produced by Walt Disney Productions, has been detailed in a previous Live Action News article, and interestingly, the controversial 1967 film, “Family Planning,” was produced in association with the Population Council, a eugenics founded organization.

Larry Lader's book helped redefine Margaret Sanger from her eugenics roots

Walt Disney Production produces FP film with Population Council

The propaganda film featured Disney’s iconic animated character, Donald Duck, who introduces the alleged gloom of having a large family. Children in smaller sized families are “healthy and happy and go to school to gain an education,” the film states, as if children of large families are unhealthy, unhappy, and uneducated. The film indoctrinates its viewers that a “happy family” is one with a modest number of children while large families basically starve with “no money for modern conveniences. […]”

In the 1969 book about the founder of Planned Parenthood, “Margaret Sanger Pioneer of Birth Control,” authors Lawrence Lader, an advocate of population control with ties to the Population Council, and Milton Meltzer reinforced overpopulation fears.

Quoting the book from p. 160-161:

Today the world has caught up with the crucial necessity for population control. Many political leaders consider it second only to the threat of nuclear war as the key issue of our time. World population is now growing at a record speed of seventy million a year. The terrible prophecy is that at the current rate of increase the world may double in population by the year 2000. Yet less than 5 percent of the world’s six hundred-odd million women in the fertile years are using modern contraceptives. To Dr. Harrison Brown, one of the nation’s leading scientists, it means “catastrophe appears a near certainty.”

Latin America, whose growth is faster than any other continent’s, will almost triple its population in the next three decades. And less food is now produced and eaten there per capita than before World War II. India, kept from the edge of famine by wheat shipments from abroad, will add two hundred million more people by 1980.

With this tidal wave of population goes desperate hunger. One half of the world’s population and two thirds of its children go to bed hungry every night. General William H. Draper, head of a presidential study committee, has said that “the stark fact is that if the population continues to increase faster than food production, hundreds of millions will starve in the next decade.”

Image: Larry Lader’s book helped redefine Margaret Sanger from her eugenics roots

Larry Lader’s book helped redefine Margaret Sanger from her eugenics roots

The United States has already added fifty million between 1950 and 1968, and our population may almost double by the year 2000. We may not face famine because of our highly mechanized food production. But the terrible overcrowding in the cities has already brought us the destructive problems of air and water pollution, traffic chaos, shortage of schools and houses, lack of parks and recreation space. The whole quality of American life is being badly damaged.

The authors then summarize the solution:

Almost everyone now realizes that Margaret Sanger’s crusade for population control is the only way to enable living standards to improve substantially. International Planned Parenthood has already shown in many areas that populations can be kept in reasonable balance…. After the government approved legalized abortion in qualified hospitals, along with contraception, the country cut its birth rate more than in half between 1947 and 1961.

The need has become so staggering that IPPF has been joined by new allies. First came the private organizations. The Population Council, headed by John D. Rockefeller III, has spent over thirty-five million dollars since 1952, the Ford Foundation many millions more.

They end the book by making an argument for federal dollars to fund population control:

But the money needed to spread birth control around the world goes far beyond private means. Hugh Moore’s Campaign to Check the Population Explosion and the Population Crisis Committee in Washington soon realized that only vast help from the federal government could meet the crisis. With constant pressure on Congress, they were able to get the government to increase its population programs overseas to fifty million dollars in 1969. Family planning programs in the United States were given ten million dollars. Yet even these sums are only a tiny fraction of what it will take to meet the problem.

And thus, the push for taxpayer-funded population control programs took on a life of its own and consisted of a multitude of characters working behind the scenes, forming coalitions, meeting with political leaders, and spreading eugenics propaganda. By the 1960s the agenda was in full swing, but it would be continually met with opposition from religious leaders and Black leaders who recognized it as a means to control the Black population.

In part two of this series, Live Action News will detail further the population control advocates who pushed for these government funded programs. Additional articles on Title X’s history are included (parts onethree, and four), as well as Planned Parenthood’s Blueprint and George HW Bush’s relationship to Title X and Planned Parenthood.

Editor’s Note, 11/8/18: Links to related articles were added.

    • This article is reprinted with permission. The original appeared here at Live Action News.

Government ‘family planning’ push once rightly raised suspicion of Black genocide

Posted in Black Eugenics Victim, Black Genocide, Black Population Demographics, Black Victims, Black Women, Blacks oppose Birth Control, Eugenics, Eugenics in North Carolina, Forced Population Control, Forced Sterilization, Guttmacher, Marco Rubio, Margaret Sanger on Segregation and sterilization, Planned Parenthood Blueprint, Planned Parenthood History, Planned Parenthood in Black Neighborhoods, Planned Parenthood in minority community, Title X with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 11, 2018 by saynsumthn

family planning, abortion, pro-life

Alan

In a previous article in this series on the eugenics and class warfare agenda behind federally funded population programs like Title X and others, I detailed how minority leaders quickly became suspicious of the government’s push for “family planning.” This article will document the beginning of this agenda and how suspicions of these programs targeted at “low-income,” impoverished Americans continued.

In 1919, Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger made an astonishing admission.Quoting from Sanger’s “Birth Control and Racial Betterment,” published in the February 1919 edition of her Birth Control Review, Sanger says, “Birth Control will clear the way for eugenics and the elimination of the unfit.” She went on:

Before eugenists and others who are laboring for racial betterment can succeed, they must first clear the way for Birth Control. Like the advocates of Birth Control, the eugenists, for instance, are seeking to assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit. Both are seeking a single end but they lay emphasis upon different methods….

Eugenics without Birth Control seems to us a house builded upon the sands. It is at the mercy of the rising stream of the unfit.

Sanger’s statement could almost be described as prophetic. Fears of the overpopulation of certain people groups were and are common in eugenics circles. By the 1960s, as discussed in part one of this series, fears of overpopulation were again being driven by organizations with ties to eugenics, pushing for federal dollars to reduce the births of the poor.

This was met with resistance in the United States, where there was a growing concern that the push for federally funded population control was motivated by a sinister plot to limit the births of Blacks and other minorities. After all, years of eugenic programs, had already been aimed at sterilizing Black Americans, so why wouldn’t federally funded “family planning” programs also target those populations?

Image: Graffiti says Birth Control is a Plan to Kill Negro (Image credit: Jet Magazine, August 1951)

Graffiti says Birth Control is a Plan to Kill Negro (Image credit: Jet Magazine, August 1951)

As Live Action News has previously documented, North Carolina’s eugenics program was funded in part by Clarence Gamble, a member of Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger’s Boards of Directors for both the American Birth Control League (ABCL) as well as Planned Parenthood. He was a close friend of the Planned Parenthood Federation and was also a financier of Sanger’s birth control crusade. That eugenics board was responsible for the sterilization of Elaine Riddick, as seen in the video clip below from the film, Maafa21

In Margaret Sanger’s “Plan for Peace,” published in the April 1932 edition of her Birth Control Review, the Planned Parenthood founder laid out her eugenic ideas for using government resources to reduce populations of those she deemed “unfit.” It reads in part:

…Second, have Congress set up a special department for the study of population problems and appoint a Parliament of Population, the directors representing the various branches of science this body to direct and control the population through birth rates and immigration, and to direct its distribution over the country according to national needs consistent with taste, fitness and interest of the individuals.

The main objects of the Population Congress would be:

a. to raise the level and increase the general  intelligence of population
b. to increase the population slowly by keeping the birth rate at its present level of fifteen per thousand…

…The second step would be to take an inventory of the secondary group such as illiterates, paupers, unemployables, criminals, prostitutes, dope-fiends, classify them in special departments under government medical protection, and segregate them on farms and open spaces as long as necessary for the strengthening and development of moral conduct.

Having corralled this enormous part of our population and placed it on a basis of health instead of punishment, it is safe to say that fifteen or twenty millions of our population would then be organized into soldiers of defense-defending the unborn against their own disabilities.

Image: Margaret Sanger’s Plan for Peace (edited)

Margaret Sanger’s Plan for Peace (edited)

In 2017, data from the Centers for Disease Control showed that overall, the U.S. birth rate had reached the lowest recorded number of births in 30 years. According to a May 2018 article in Forbes:

… [A]s described… at the Institute for Family Studies, 2017 fertility rates have been published, and show a 40 year low at 1.76 lifetime births per woman, with the most dramatic declines expressed in “missing births” over the past decade, occurring among Hispanic and African-American women, whose fertility rates are now, while still higher, much closer to the already-low rates of white non-Hispanic women. Specifically, the fertility rate for black women dropped from 2.15 to 1.89, and that of Hispanic women dropped from 2.85 to 2.1 in the time period of 2008 – 2016, compared to a decline from 1.95 to 1.72 births per non-Hispanic woman.

Recently, an Urban Institute report which looked at the birth rates for women in their 20s, found that from 2007 to 2012, according to CNBC, “Hispanic women in the age group saw the biggest declines in birth rates—a 26 percent plunge. That was followed by a 14 percent decrease among African-American women and an 11 percent fall for white women.”

Data on users of Title X clinics by race/ethnicity reveal that poor minorities are growing in their usage of the so-called free “family planning” services. In 1991 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), reported the following:

  • 14.9% Hispanic
  • 61.9% White
  • 17.3% Black
  • .5% Native American
  • 1.2% Asian/Pacific Islander
Image: Title X family planning users by race ethnicity 1991 (Image credit: CDC)

Title X family planning users by race ethnicity 1991 (Image credit: CDC)

Today, according to figures published in the 2016 Family Planning Annual report, those numbers are on the rise. A report published by the blog American Progress states:

  • Out of the 4 million family planning clients who Title X serves, more than half are women of color: 30 percent identify as either black or African American, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, or American Indian or Alaska Native, and another 32 percent of clients identify as Hispanic or Latino.
  • 21 percent of all Title X clients identify as black or African American, and 30 percent identify as Hispanic or Latinowhile African American people and Hispanic and Latino people make up 13 percent and 17 percent of the U.S. population, respectively.

The figures show an alarming increase in users among the Black and Hispanic communities, specifically. This means that poor, minority women are likely more highly targeted for population control services through federally funded “family planning” programs than in the past.

In 1951, Dr. Charles V. Willie, Professor of Sociology at Syracuse University in New York, noted that Black Americans opposed any government effort to limit their numbers. Professor Willie studied the Black community’s attitudes on this topic and concluded that they viewed these efforts as Black genocide. “The genocidal charge of Black people is anchored in good data,” the professor told Jet Magazine. “Blacks point out that a leading government spokesperson has declared that an increase in Black people of 1 to 2 percent points of the total population is ‘extra-ordinary.’ Blacks also point out that whites were not concerned about their family form and size during the age of slavery.”

Simone M. Caron’s research published by the Journal of Social History, entitled, Birth Control and the Black Community in the 1960’s: Genocide or Power Politics?, gave several examples, including the attitudes of the Black Panther party, writing:

The Black Panther party considered contraception only one part of a larger government scheme of genocide. Drugs, venereal disease, prostitution, coercive sterilization bills, restrictive welfare legislation, inhuman living conditions, “police murders,” rat bites, malnutrition, lead poisoning, frequent fires and accidents in run-down houses, and black over-representation in Vietnam combat forces all contributed to the malicious plan to annihilate the black race.

Author Donald T. Critchlow, in his book, “Intended Consequences, Birth Control, Abortion and the Federal Government in Modern America,” also noted the opposition, writing, “The Black Muslim newspaper, Muhammad Speaks, kept up a steady attack on federal family planning programs as a white plot against the black community.”

By 1962, Urban League and NAACP chapters would join the list of “family planning” critics, according to Caron:

Whitney Young, leader of the Urban League, revoked his group’s support of contraception in 1962. Several local NAACP chapters followed suit. Marvin Davies, head of the Florida NAACP, rejected contraception and argued that black women needed to produce large numbers of babies until the black population comprised 30-35 percent of Americans; only then would blacks be able to affect the power structure.

In September of 1965, according to author David Allyn in his book, “Make Love, not War,” “the NAACP opposed a $91,000 federal grant for the dissemination of birth control information in North Philadelphia. The NAACP charged Planned Parenthood, which had applied for the grant, with attempting to ‘help Negroes commit racial suicide.’ ”

Many of these fears were confirmed when, in 1964, the platform of the American Eugenics Party included the following:

  • The United States is already over-populated. We must stop all immigration and impose birth controls.
  • Those genetic types within each race and stock having better traits will be encouraged to produce more offspring and those having the lesser qualities will be restricted in the number of their offspring.
Image: American Eugenics Party platform 1964

American Eugenics Party platform 1964 (Image credit: DNA Learning Center at Cold Springs Harbor)

But advocacy of “family planning” programs was strong and the push was coming from top leaders, including the President of the United States.

In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) lent his support to taxpayer funded “family planning” efforts within the U.S. and abroad, claiming in a speech that for every five dollars spent on population control, more than a hundred would be invested in economic growth. For implementation of an “affirmative and effective population policy at home and abroad,” President Johnson was bestowed Planned Parenthood’s highest award (the Margaret Sanger Award).

Image: Lyndon B Johnson receives Planned Parenthood’s Margaret Sanger Award

Lyndon B Johnson receives Planned Parenthood’s Margaret Sanger Award

Planned Parenthood had its roots in eugenics; founder Margaret Sanger was a member of the American Eugenics Society, who stacked her board with leaders of the eugenics movement and even willingly spoke to members of the Ku Klux Klan. Simply changing the organization’s name from the American Birth Control League (under Sanger’s leadership) to Planned Parenthood did not erase Planned Parenthood’s eugenics ties. You can trace the organization’s deep ties in eugenics well beyond their name change in 1942, and that philosophy has been carried on throughout its history.

Image: Margaret Sanger meets with Klan from film Maafa21

Margaret Sanger writes about Klan meeting in Autobiography (Image credit: Maafa21)

Planned Parenthood‘s medical director during this time (1962) was a doctor by the name of Alan Guttmacher, a former VP for the American Eugenics Society and founder of Planned Parenthood’s research arm and “special affiliate,” the Guttmacher Institute, who later went on to become president of Planned Parenthood.

Image: PPFA president Alan F Guttmacher speaks about abortion, 1965

PPFA president Alan F Guttmacher speaks about abortion, 1965

Guttmacher was also a eugenicist, joining others of his day in voicing a concern about rising population growth. Guttmacher did not discount the idea of coercion.

Image: Compulsory Birth Control article

Compulsory Birth Control article

In 1966, Guttmacher compared the world population with the threat of nuclear war, telling the Washington Post that governments may have to act officially to limit families. “It may be taken out of the voluntary category,” Guttmacher said.

Image: Guttmacher abortion coercion possible

Guttmacher abortion coercion possible

Although Guttmacher can be credited as the mastermind behind the push for abortion at Planned Parenthood, he also helped craft the push for taxpayer funded family planning.

As Live Action News previously documented, in 1966, Guttmacher proposed a blueprint to force taxpayers to pay for birth control access for the poor. By this time, Guttmacher had become more crafty in his messaging, promoting the concept as empowering others to make “choices,” when the real motivation was population control. This eugenics agenda was clear in his statement published by the New York Times: “The main goal of our program is not just to limit population, but to give everyone the same opportunity for quality medical care.”

Image: 1963 article urges family planning for Blacks (Image credit New York Times)

1963 article urges family planning for Blacks (Image credit New York Times)

The “plan” — described by a 1966 New York Times article as a “partnership of public and private agencies” — was to make birth control services “freely available to every American by 1970” in an effort to prevent about 250,000 pregnancies every year. It was presented at Planned Parenthood’s New York headquarters by the organization’s then-president, George N. Lindsay, who called it the “best bargain in health services that money could buy.”

Interestingly, a short time later, in 1967, according to HHS’ Administration for Children and Families website, funds for “family planning” were introduced:

The 1967 Social Security Amendments earmarked 6 percent of maternal and child health funds for family planning, officially sanctioning the Children’s Bureau’s involvement in these services for the first time. By 1968, nearly all States were providing some form of family planning through this program (up from 20 States just 4 years earlier), bringing assistance to more than 420,000 women.

Image: 1967 Child Health Program funds Family Planning

1967 Child Health Program funds Family Planning

According to a Brookings Paper on Economic Activity report:

In addition, the Maternity and Infant Care projects under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) supplemented the EOA [1964 Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)] effort by funding family planning services through city health departments. From fiscal 1967 to fiscal 1970, federal funds allocated to family planning increased to roughly $600 million (in 2010 dollars), over 10 times their level in 1967.

Author Donald T. Critchlow noted in the aforementioned book that by 1967, the “Children’s Bureau budget was increased to $50 million… but the bureau was hamstrung by restrictions that limited matching grants to state and local agencies. This policy deliberately excluded voluntary agencies such as Planned Parenthood from receiving federal funds administered through state and local agencies.”

However, Critchlow also observed that by the time Lyndon B. Johnson left office in 1968, “a policy revolution in federal family planning had occurred, setting the stage for the further expansion of family planning programs under Richard Nixon.”

In part three of this series, Live Action News will detail how the population control movement recruited a Republican president to push this agenda. Additional articles on Title X’s history are included (Parts onetwo, and four), as well as Planned Parenthood’s  Blueprint and George HW Bush’s relationship to TitleX and Planned Parenthood.

Editor’s Note, 11/8/18: Links to related articles were added.