Archive for the Eugenics in North Carolina Category

Second state offers reparations to eugenic forced sterilization victims

Posted in Ernst Rudin, Eugenics in North Carolina, Eugenics in Virginia, Forced Sterilization, Reparations with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on March 4, 2015 by saynsumthn

On March 20, 1924 the Virginia General Assembly passed two racist laws “The Racial Integrity Act” and “The Sterilization Act

Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act was overseen by an avid eugenicist named Walter Ashby Plecker.

Plecker became a darling of the Eugenics movement and at one point he dined at the New York home of another famous eugenicist Harry H. Laughlin.

Laughlin was an official with both the American Eugenics Society and Planned Parenthood founder, Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League

Laughlin was also an unabashed Nazi sympathizer.

Harry Laughlin BCR Margaret Sanger

In 1932, Plecker gave a keynote speech at the Third International Conference on Eugenics in New York.

Among those in attendance was Ernst Rudin of Germany and in 1933, Rudin’s call for racial purity was published in Sanger’s Birth Control Review.

Ernst Rudin Eugenics Nazi Margaret Sanger Maafa21

Later, according to the documentary film, Maafa21, Rudin would be chosen by Hitler to write Germany’s eugenics laws and, at one point, he personally helped the Gestapo round-up and sterilize between 500 and 600 blacks who they referred to as “Rhineland bastards.” After the war, Rudin would be identified as one of the architects of the barbaric medical experiments that the Nazis carried out in their concentration camps.

Walter Ashby Plecker Eugenics racism Quote

When Hitler’s sterilizations were reported in the United States Plecker wrote a letter to the German Bureau of Human Betterment and Eugenics praising them for the action and expressing his hope that not one child had been missed.

Ten years earlier, Plecker had written that African-Americans were “the greatest problem and most destructive force which confronts the white race and American civilization.”

Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act played havoc on couples who wished to marry but were of different races. In June, 1958, two residents of Virginia, Mildred Jeter, a Black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were married in the District of Columbia pursuant to its laws. Shortly after their marriage, the Lovings returned to Virginia and established their marital abode in Caroline County. At the October Term, 1958, of the Circuit Court of Caroline County, a grand jury issued an indictment charging the Lovings with violating Virginia’s ban on interracial marriages.

On January 6, 199, the Lovings pleaded guilty to the charge, and were sentenced to one year in jail; however, the trial judge suspended the sentence for a period of 25 years on the condition that the Lovings leave the State and not return to Virginia together for 25 years.

Eugenical Sterilization Act

Between 1927 to 1979, Virginia sterilized about 8,000 people deemed unfit to reproduce for reasons such as mental illness, physical deformity or homelessness.

The Virginia Eugenical Sterilization Act declared that “heredity plays an important part in the transmission of insanity, idiocy, imbecility, epilepsy, and crime.”

The act was based on Harry Laughlin’s Model Law.

Harry Laughlin BCR

Laughlin was an official with both the American Eugenics Society and Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League and, in 1928, his plan for using forced sterilization to eliminate those who might produce what he called “degenerate offspring” was published in the Birth Control Review.

Just a few years prior, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Buck v. Bell, a case challenging Virginia’s eugenics sterilization law, a model law used by many other states to sterilize their people.

VA Eugenic Sterilization Law Upheld

In deciding Carrie Buck’s fate, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, wrote, “Carrie Buck is a feeble minded white woman who was committed to the State Colony above mentioned in due form. She is the daughter of a feeble minded mother in the same institution, and the mother of an illegitimate feeble minded child. She was eighteen years old at the time of the trial of her case in the Circuit Court, in the latter part of 1924. An Act of Virginia, approved March 20, 1924, recites that the health of the patient and the welfare of society may be promoted in certain cases by the sterilization of mental defectives, under careful safeguard, that the sterilization may be effected in males by vasectomy and in females by salpingectomy, without serious pain or substantial danger to life; that the Commonwealth is supporting in various institutions many defective persons who, if now discharged, would become a menace, but, if incapable of procreating, might be discharged with safety and become self-supporting with benefit to themselves and to society, and that experience has shown that heredity plays an important part in the transmission of insanity, imbecility…The statute then enacts that, whenever the superintendent of certain institutions, including the above-named State Colony, shall be of opinion that it is for the best interests of the patients and of society that an inmate under his care should be sexually sterilized, he may have the operation performed upon any patient afflicted with hereditary forms of insanity, imbecility…on complying with the very careful provisions by which the act protects the patients from possible abuse.”

Carrie-Emma-Buck

“The judgment finds the facts that have been recited, and that Carrie Buck “is the probable potential parent of socially inadequate offspring, likewise afflicted, that she may be sexually sterilized without detriment to her general health, and that her welfare and that of society will be promoted by her sterilization,” and thereupon makes the order.”

OliverWendallHolmes

Holmes went on to state, “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind … Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

According to the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, it is likely that Carrie’s mother, Emma Buck, was committed to a state institution because she was considered sexually promiscuous, that the same diagnosis was made about Carrie when she became an unwed mother at the age of 17 due to being raped, and that her daughter Vivian was diagnosed as “not quite normal” at the age of six months largely in support of the legal effort to sterilize Carrie.

The law was eventually overturned and in 2002, Virginia’s Governor apologized to the victims.

VA Gov Apologizes for Sterilization Eugenics

Now, the state of Virginia has decided to compensate the victims of forced sterilization and the General Assembly has set up a fund which should give $25,000 to each victim.

The appropriation makes Virginia the second state to take such action following North Carolina.

The North Carolina effort was due in part to the moving testimony of eugenics victim, Elaine Riddick. Her story has been captured in the film, Maafa21 available here wwa.maafa21.com

Eugenics victim to be compensated

Posted in Eugenics in North Carolina with tags , , , , , , , on June 9, 2014 by saynsumthn

Janice Black

Janice Black is one of more than 7600 people forcibly sterilized by the state between 1929 and 1974 because they were considered feeble-minded or “undesirable”. Some victims were as young as 10; Janice was 17 when she was sterilized against her will in 1971.

“I did want children, but they took care of that for me, so I could never have them,” Janice explained to WCNC.

For years Janice and her friend Sadie Gilmore Long have been trying to get the state to apologize for the Eugenics program.

“Not only to Janice, but all the other victims across North Carolina that are in the same boat as Janice is in,” explained Sadie.

Black was one of the last victims of the North Carolina Eugenics Board which disbanded in 1974. Black was 18 that year and living with her stepmother. She has a big smile and a contagious chuckle, but her developmental disabilities led the Eugenics Board to conclude that she wouldn’t be a fit parent and ordered her sterilized.

She kept it a secret until last year, when North Carolina state leaders began talking seriously about compensating eugenics victims. Speaking out was cathartic for Black.

“It kind of gave me some relief – like getting a monkey off your back,” she says, chuckling. No amount of money can make it right, but she says what the state has done now – “it helps some,” she told WFAE.

Two weeks ago, on Janice’s birthday, she received a letter from the state confirming her claim had been approved.

“I was excited, not for myself, but for her, and we jumped around the hallways and praised the glory of God,” recalled Sadie.

Janice was happy, but said it didn’t take away the pain.

“I don’t have anything against the money or anything like that, but it’s not going to bring back what they took away.”

Janice doesn’t know how much money she’ll receive yet; that depends on how many verified claims there are. So far, less than 500 have applied, and the state has only passed on 281 claims to be reviewed by a commission.

Eugenic sterilization programs existed in America in at least 31 states. Many of the women forced or coerced into sterilization were black.

From 1929 to 1974, the state of North Carolina forcibly sterilized thousands of people who were deemed to be mentally handicapped, promiscuous or unfit to have children.

Life Dynamics has documented the history of the American Eugenics Society including North Carolina’s forced sterilization program in our film, Maafa21: Black Genocide in 21st Century America.

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Blacks sterilized by eugenics program funded by Margaret Sanger supporter

Posted in Clarence Gamble, Elaine Riddick, Eugenics in North Carolina, Eugenics Review, Life Dynamics, Margaret Sanger and AES, North Carolina Eugenics with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 11, 2014 by saynsumthn

Maafa21 logo by Life Dynamics originally published here

Apr 11, 2014 10:57:00 AM

Eugenic sterilization programs existed in America in at least 31 states. Many of the women forced or coerced into sterilization were black.

From 1929 to 1974, the state of North Carolina forcibly sterilized thousands of people who were deemed to be mentally handicapped, promiscuous or unfit to have children.

Life Dynamics has documented the history of the American Eugenics Society including North Carolina’s forced sterilization program in their film, Maafa21: Black Genocide in 21st Century America.

Eugenics Society member, Margaret Sanger, who later founded Planned Parenthood, also advocated sterilization of the so-called unfit.

In 1950 Sanger advocated eugenic sterilization in a personal letter she wrote to Katharine Dexter McCormick, an heir to the International Harvester fortune who used her immense wealth to fund the development of the birth-control pill.

Sanger wrote, “I consider that the world and almost our civilization for the next twenty-five years, is going to depend upon a simple, cheap, safe contraceptive to be used in poverty stricken slums, jungles, and among the most ignorant people. Even this will not be sufficient, because I believe that now, immediately; there should be national sterilization for certain dysgenic types of our population who are being encouraged to breed and would die out were the government not feeding them.”

Sanger I Consider

Sanger’s connections to eugenics was nothing new. She had long praised their ideologies and published several articles on the topic in her Birth Control Review.

In 1935, Sanger’s American Birth Control League published a resolution to unite with the American Eugenics Society.

Sanger 1935abcl-eugenics

Mark Crutcher, President of Life Dynamics elaborates, “These ties between eugenics and Planned Parenthood’s founder were so well established that Sanger, who was a long standing member of the American Eugenics Society, once pursued a plan to merge the American Birth Control League, or Planned Parenthood as it was later called, with the American Eugenics Society. However, despite Sanger’s strong support for the merger, it would eventually be rejected by the leadership of the American Eugenics Society. Sanger then pushed a proposal that would have combined the publications of the two organizations into one magazine. But again, that idea was also rejected by the American Eugenics Society.”

In 1939, Sanger described the American Birth Control League’s Negro Project in a letter to fellow eugenicist, Clarence Gamble, “The minister’s work is also important and also he should be trained, perhaps by the Federation as to our ideals and the goal that we hope to reach. We do not want the word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members.”

SangerNegroQuote

Gamble was a heir to the Proctor and Gamble fortune and a major financial backer of Sanger’s.

Gamble was also a director of Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League, which later changed its name to Planned Parenthood.

Gamble Sterilization EU

In 1947, Gamble called for the expansion of North Carolina’s State’s sterilization program saying that for every feeble minded person sterilized, 40 more were polluting and degrading the bloodlines of future generation with their defective genes.

Research from North Carolina’s Winston-Salem Journal reveals a long history of abuses in the N.C. sterilization program — abuses that Gamble consistently glossed over. According to the Journal, “Gamble wanted sterilizations to increase rather than decrease, and increase they did.”

But merely wanting the sterilizations to happen was not enough for this Margaret Sanger supporter. Clarence Gamble put his money where his eugenics views were and actually funded the North Carolina Eugenics Board that sterilized many blacks, including 14 year old Elaine Riddick.

This is her story excerpted from Life Dynamics’ film: Maafa21:

Shortly after this interview in Maafa21, Elaine Riddick testified before the North Carolina State Legislature in a successful effort to receive compensation for the sterilization.

They cut me open like I was a hog,” Elaine Riddick testified tearfully, “I didn’t even know nothing about this stuff.”

Riddick told the lawmakers that her only crime was being poor, BLACK, and from a bad home environment.

North Carolina was not the only state whose eugenics programs were influenced by friends of Sanger or Planned Parenthood. In some parts of the country, Planned Parenthood was closely associated with these state eugenics boards and was often a referral agency for them.
PP Eugenics Tree
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In fact, documents from eugenics publications reveal that ‪later, as Sanger’s American Birth Control League morphed into Planned Parenthood they received rent free space from ‪the Eugenics Society.

A fact which is rarely reported is that, in many places, Planned Parenthood was one and the same as the Eugenics Society.

For example, when the first birth control clinic was opened in Arkansas, it was operated by the Arkansas Eugenics Association and overseen by a woman named Hilda Cornish.
Hilda Cornish ARK eugenics Society letter

Later the Arkansas Eugenics Association would become the Arkansas State Affiliate of Planned Parenthood and Cornish would be named its executive director.

Planned Parenthood ARK eugenics society

Supporters and directors of Margaret Sanger were, like her, entrenched in eugenics. Sanger’s backers knew that they were promoting views that would limit the population of a certain group or race of people, primarily African Americans. Their eugenics agenda reached into the lives of innocent and unsuspecting victims like Elaine Riddick with programs of coerced sterilization. But Elaine represents merely a fraction of the black women affected by eugenics.

Over the years the names of these organizations may have changed but their eugenics agenda remains the same and are targeting more unsuspecting people today.

Elaine Riddick

Euphemisms and sterilization target code words, for example, “feebleminded”, were used to describe Black women like me, Elaine Riddick. I was forcibly sterilized at the age of 14 years under North Carolina’s inhumane forced sterilization policy. A policy that was derived from Margaret Sanger’s Planned Parenthood population control handbook, which spread across the United States by her loyal band of eugenicists and lobbying our elected officials,” Elaine Riddick wrote recently.

For more on the forced sterilization of Black women and the eugenics movement, watch Maafa21.

For more on Life Dynamics go here http://www.lifedynamics.com