Archive for the Eugenics in North Carolina Category

Black woman sterilized due to eugenic agenda of Planned Parenthood board member

Posted in Black Eugenics Victim, Black Genocide, Black pro-life leaders, Black Victims, Black Women, Clarence Gamble, Eugenics by State, Eugenics in North Carolina, Margaret Sanger, Planned Parenthood Board Member, Planned Parenthood in minority community, Planned Parenthood racist supporter with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 28, 2018 by saynsumthn

At the age of 14, after becoming pregnant from a violent rape, the eugenics board of the State of Nort

North Carolina decided Elaine Riddick should not have any more children and sterilized her without consent. Riddick claims the reason she was sterilized without her knowledge or approval was because the state of North Carolina had ruled her “feebleminded,” a degrading term commonly used in eugenics. She recently told her emotional story in the powerful documentary film, produced by Life Dynamics, Inc., called Maafa21: Black Genocide in 21st Century America, which Live Action is screening on social media this month. North Carolina’s eugenics program was funded in part by a member of Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger’s Board of Directors and close friend of the Federation — Clarence Gamble. Gamble sat on the boardof Sanger’s American Birth Control League (ABCL) as well asPlanned Parenthood, and was also a financier of Sanger’s birth control crusade. In addition, he helped to fund the North Carolina Eugenics program.

Sanger, an established member of the American Eugenics Society, stacked her organization with like-minded men and women. In 1942, the ABCL changed its name to Planned Parenthood.

Image: ABCL Directors

Clarence Gamble, a director of Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League

Elaine Riddick was kidnapped, molested, and became pregnant as a result of rape at 13 years of age. At the time, Riddick was living with her grandmother, Maggie Woodard, known as “Miss Peaches,” when a social worker with the State discovered her pregnancy. Her name was Sue L. Casebolt, and she referred Elaine’s case to the state’s Eugenics Board. Casebolt had been installed as the Executive Secretary of the North Carolina Eugenics Board in 1961.

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Elaine Riddick speaks about eugenic sterilization in Maafa21

According to Maafa21:

At a board meeting held three weeks later, she stated that she intended to keep a file on every child whose name reached her desk so that they could be picked up as soon as they reached childbearing age. Casebolt was still on the board in 1968 when it approved the sterilization of Elaine Riddick.

Sue Casebolt board that sterilized Black woman funded by Planned Parenthood member/ Sue Casebolt on eugenics board that sterilized Elaine Riddick (Image credit: Maafa21)

Riddick said that her grandmother was illiterate and did not understand what she was signing. Knowing this, the social worker pressured her to sign with an “X,” threatening to send Elaine to an orphanage, and remove her grandmother’s government aid for food if she did not. Unfortunately, the document her grandmother was pressured to sign was not a medical consent form for the birth, but a consent to have Elaine sterilized after she gave birth to her son Tony, now a successful businessman.

“I did not find out that they had sterilized me until I was nineteen years old,” Riddick says in Maafa21, adding:

I asked the State of North Carolina why they did this to me and they said that [they did it] because I was feebleminded. That I would not be able to take care of myself…. That I was incompetent…. They were saying that feeblmindness is hereditary. So, they sterilized me so I would not produce my kind. Mind you, I am not illiterate nor am I feebleminded…. They sterilized kids, my understanding…-as young as eight years of age. I don’t know what an eight year-old can do that could cause them to do this to them? The only reason I can give myself is that [it’s] because they’re Black.”

Riddick’s powerful testimony and nearly 40-year battle for justice secured millions of dollars for surviving victims in North Carolina. As a result of Riddick’s willingness to tell her story, North Carolina also agreed to make its eugenics records public.

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

North Carolina Eugenics Program document

North Carolina’s sterilization program began with the passage of the North Carolina Sterilization Act in 1929. In 1933, according to the North Carolina History Project online, the act was declared unconstitutional on the grounds that it “did not allow an appeals process. In the same year, the North Carolina General Assembly passed a law allowing an appeal process and created the Board of Eugenics to oversee sterilizations.”

“Between 1929 and 1974, more than 7,600 North Carolinians were sterilized,” reports the Winston-Salem Journal, which wrote extensively on this tragedy, “many of them against their will. Young girls who had gotten pregnant, some by rape or incest, were frequently the targets. Some were flagged because faulty intelligence tests labeled them “feeble-minded,” others simply because they were epileptic. Many were young, poor and black.”

“It’s a very paternalistic model,” author and researcher Johanna Schoen said. “(Women) certainly weren’t supposed to choose when to use birth control or when not to use birth control, or when to be sterilized or when not to be sterilized. The model was, the physician knows best.”

Schoen writes in his book, “Choice & Coercion: Birth Control, Sterilization, and Abortion in Public”:

[M]any philanthropists and health officials believed that African Americans lacked the intellectual  capacity to use any form of birth control. Elsie Wulkop, a social worker who collaborated with [Clarence] Gamble to establish small contraceptive field trials, commented on the attempt to educate African Americans on birth control, “It impresses me as being like trying to get sheer animals to conform.”

Schoen continues, “Sources indicate that some health officials might have found birth control programs appealing as a form of population control.”

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Elaine Riddick

Riddick is also understandably outspoken against Planned Parenthood, as the abortion corporation’s founder was  financially supported by Clarence Gamble, the man who also helped fund the very eugenics program that sterilized Riddick. “Euphemisms and sterilization target code words, for example, “feebleminded”, were used to describe Black women like me,” Riddick wrote in an op-ed:

“I was forcibly sterilized at the age of 14 years under North Carolina’s inhumane forced sterilization policy. A policy that was derived from Margaret Sanger’s Planned Parenthood population control handbook, which spread across the United States by her loyal band of eugenicists and lobbying our elected officials.”

Despite Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger’s ties to the horrors of eugenics, many laud her as a hero, including modern-day Planned Parenthood itself. But, as Mary Senander explains in the Star Tribune, Sanger was anything but a heroine:

Contemporary liberal social planners have elevated Sanger to sainthood, protesting that her birth control campaign was nothing more than a vehicle for economic betterment and health for the masses. But Sanger’s own well-documented words, publications and associations indicate a deeper and darker motivation. Sanger began publishing the Birth Control Review in 1917 and served as its editor until 1938. The May 1919 Review proclaimed, “More children for the fit, less for the unfit.” By unfit, Sanger meant the mentally retarded or physically handicapped; later her definition expanded.

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Birth Control to Create a Race of Thoroughbreds, by Margaret Sanger (Image Birth Control Review)

In November 1921 the review issued a clarion call: “Birth control, to create a race of thoroughbreds.” Sanger suggested that parents should “apply for babies as immigrants have to apply for visas.” By 1925, she was a true convert to eugenics, setting up birth control clinics in poor neighborhoods populated by “Latins” and “Slavs” (both groups heavily Catholic) and “Hebrews” – groups she had targeted as threats because of their increasing numbers. She spoke of those who were “irresponsible and reckless,” among them those “whose religious scruples prevent their exercising control over their numbers”…

In the October 1926 Review, Sanger announced her idea for eugenic sterilization: “There is only one reply to a request for a higher birthrate among the intelligent, and that is to ask the government to first take off the burdens of the insane and the feeble-minded from your backs.” Eugenicists like Sanger concluded that the poor were both stupid and immoral, fueling campaigns for sterilization during the Depression. (By 1932, 27 states had compulsory sterilization laws.)

Sanger supporter Clarence Gamble was a graduate of Harvard Medical School graduate, the heir to the Procter & Gamble fortune, and a teacher at the University of Pennsylvania. He was also a medical consultant for the Human Betterment League of North Carolina, another organization with ties to eugenics.

                                                            Eugenics pamphlet from Human Betterment League Association

                                                        Eugenics pamphlet from Human Betterment League Association

According to the book, “Intended Consequences,” in 1933, Gamble was elected president of the Pennsylvania Birth Control Federation, an organization affiliated with Sanger. And, according to researcher James A. Miller:

In December 1937, Gamble was appointed ‘Medical Field Director’ of Sanger’s Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau and at the same time became a member of the editorial advisory board of the Bureau’s Journal of Contraception, a propaganda vehicle for Sanger’s birth control and eugenics agenda…When the North Carolina plan was launched, there were just three (private) birth control clinics in the state; by the end of 1938, with Gamble’s backing, the state had created 56. At that time, with less than 3 percent of the country’s population, North Carolina had 13 percent of the nation’s birth control clinics. By mid-1939 the number of birth control clinics in North Carolina had risen to 62, second only to New York.

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Margaret Sanger letter to Clarence Gamble (image credit: Maafa21)

By 1939, Gamble joined others in funding Sanger’s Committee on Planned Parenthood. And, according to Senander’s article, “Eugenics part of Sanger legacy”:

 Dr. Clarence J. Gamble, previously a director of the ABCL, was elected the BCFA regional director in the South. Almost immediately, he drew up a memorandum for his plans for the “Negro Project.” Gamble’s plan included placing black leaders in positions where it would appear that they were in charge (in order to counter the perception by black leaders who might regard birth control as an extermination plot). Sanger agreed: “We do not want the word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population, and the minister is the man who can straighten that idea out if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members.”

Sanger’s 1939 letter to Gamble, about the infamous “Negro Project,” can be seen excerpted in the image below:

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Excerpt: Margaret Sanger Letter to Clarence Gamble, Negro Project

Gamble referred to eugenic sterilization as “preventative medicine,” writing in the North Carolina Medical Journal in 1951:

One method of preventive medicine, the sterilization of the insane, the feeblemided and the epileptic, is supervised by the Eugenics Board of North Carolina…. Petitions for the sterilization of a mentally diseased, feebleminded, or epileptic person may be initiated by a county superintendent of welfare, or the head of a state institution. If the Board finds that the operation is for the best mental, moral or physical improvement of the patient, or for the public good, it may authorize the procedure…. Of those sterilized under the law, 23 per cent were Negro. That this figure is lower than the proportion of Negroes in the population of the state-approximately one-third-is due partly to the fact that the state hospital caring for the Negro insane and feebleminded has not had sufficient surgical services to perform many of these operations.

Then, by the early 1960’s, Gamble co-authored a booklet on family planning with Planned Parenthood’s president, Alan F. Guttmacher. It was published by Pathfinder Fund, an organization Gamble helped to found. The book was  entitled, “Family planning: a challenge to health workers of every nation.”

Guttmacher, a former vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, had been a longtime advocate of abortion and a strong proponent of government funded “family planning.” Author Angela Franks notes in her book on Sanger:

As both Sanger and Gamble had foreseen, once government got involved, Planned Parenthood [PPFA] and Gamble’s Pathfinder Fund would be able to spend great sums of money carrying out their original eugenic and population control mandates, and with people like Gamble and PPFA’s Alan Guttmacher directing the organizational bureaucracy, the continued influence of eugenics was inevitable.

Research from the Winston-Salem Journal discovered that “Gamble wanted sterilizations to increase rather than decrease, and increase they did.”

According to the film, Maafa21, “In 1947, Gamble called for the expansion of North Carolina’s State’s sterilization program saying that for every feeble minded person sterilized, 40 more were polluting and degrading the bloodlines of future generation with their defective genes.”

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Clarence Gamble calls for eugenics sterilizations (Image: Maafa21)

Gamble had been promoting birth control since the late 1930s…” writes the Winston-Salem Journal. In addition:

Gamble was sure that eugenic sterilization was a good idea, but after World War II few states were willing to consider the kind of aggressive program that he wanted. Gamble contributed time, money and a keen public-relations sense to the Human Betterment League. He also paid for most of the sterilizations in Orange County during one year, and he paid for the research that went into the book Sterilization in North Carolina, written by researcher Moya Woodside.

According to Maafa21, “North Carolina was not the only state whose eugenics programs were influenced by friends of Sanger or Planned Parenthood. In some parts of the country, Planned Parenthood was closely associated with these state eugenics boards and was often a referral agency for them.” You can watch Maafa21 on Live Action’s Facebook page.

Planned Parenthood, eugenics

Elaine Riddick embraces her son (Image credit: Maafa21 blog)

In her quest to get justice for eugenics victims, Elaine Riddick testified tearfully:

I was a victim of rape…I was a victim of child abuse… I have to get out what the state of North Carolina did to me. I am not feeble minded. I’ve never been feeble minded. They slandered me. They ridiculed and harassed me….

They cut me open like I was a hog… at the same time they gave me a cesarean birth and took my child and when they did that – they sterilized me. What do you think I’m worth?

Riddick told the lawmakers that her only crime was being poor, Black, and from a bad home environment.

Between 1929 and 1974, nearly 7,600 documented males and females were sterilized by choice, force or coercion under the authority the NC Eugenics Board program. The youngest victims were ten years of age.

  • 85% of victims were female.
  • 40% of victims were minorities, including African Americans and Native Americans.

In 2010, the Justice for Sterilization Victims Foundation was established as a Division of the NC Department of Administration to compensate victims who were forcibly sterilized by the State. The exact number of victims alive today is unknown. However, the State Center for Health Statistics estimates that 2,944 victims may have still been alive as of 2010. It is more realistically estimated by the State Center that 1,500 to 2,000 victims may still be alive.

In 2013, the NC state legislature included $10 million in the budget to be divvied among verified victims.

Eugenics is an evil ideology that tragically remains alive today. As Live Action News has previously documented, the philosophy of eugenics continues to morph under different terms such as abortion and euthanasia. Today, abortion disproportionately targets the African American community — and the main promoter of abortion is Planned Parenthood.

Although Planned Parenthood was founded by Margaret Sanger, an eugenics enthusiast, the organization has yet to denounce her. That is because Planned Parenthood’s ties to eugenics run just as deep as their founder’s — and that evil root, which claims to decide who is worthy to live or to die, exists to this day.

  • This article is reprinted with permission. The original appeared here at Live Action News.

Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger spoke to the Klan and supported eugenics. So why does the organization still honor her?

Posted in Eugenics, Eugenics in North Carolina, Margaret Sanger, Margaret Sanger and AES, Merge ABCL with Eugenics, Planned Parenthood and Eugenics, Planned Parenthood Margaret Sanger Award, Planned Parenthood racist supporter with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on August 24, 2017 by saynsumthn

Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger spoke to the Ku Klux Klan and supported eugenics. So why does the organization still honor her?

The media seems to be doing an effective job of condemning many people who have an association with the Klu Klux Klan — but one exception to this seems to be Planned Parenthood’s “beloved” founder, Margaret Sanger. Margaret Sanger is usually described as a “birth control pioneer” who founded Planned Parenthood, but she also met with members of the Klan, advocated eugenics, and supported the use of sterilization to rid the planet of the “unfit.” Sanger wrote about her meeting with the Klan in her autobiography. Yet somehow this fact is made light of, glossed over, or completely ignored by the media.

On page 366 of her autobiography, Sanger described her meeting with the Klan, where she says she received additional invitations to speak with similar groups:

I accepted an invitation to talk to the women’s branch of the Ku Klux Klan…. I saw through the door dim figures parading with banners and illuminated crosses…. I was escorted to the platform, was introduced, and began to speak…. In the end, through simple illustrations I believed I had accomplished my purpose. A dozen invitations to speak to similar groups were proffered.

What about Sanger’s outspoken support for eugenics?

While some may not be entirely familiar with the meaning of “eugenics,” it’s likely that those same people have seen it in action in various ways. Coined in the mid 1800’s by Francis Galton, the cousin of Charles Darwin, eugenics was a popular movement to create a society in which those who were considered “superior” would reproduce… while those who were deemed “inferior” would be encouraged not to reproduce. Tragically, this movement was credited with forcefully sterilizing many men and women. The targets of these horrendous acts were disproportionately Black and poor, according to many reports.

Screenshot of PP honoring Sanger

Eugenics victim Elaine Riddick speaks in the video below about being “cut up like a hog,” thanks to the philosophy of eugenics. Riddick, like some other Black citizens, was forcibly sterilized in North Carolina in 1968. Her tearful testimony encouraged state lawmakers to vote for reparations for those like her, who were eugenically sterilized.

So how does this relate to Planned Parenthood founder, Margaret Sanger? One of the prominent supporters of that horrific eugenics program was Clarence Gamble, and Gamble was a director of Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League, which later changed its name to Planned Parenthood.

In Margaret Sanger’s “Birth Control and Racial Betterment,” the Planned Parenthood founder links the goals of eugenics with her own goals of promoting birth control, writing (emphasis added):

We who advocate Birth Control, on the other hand, lay all our emphasis upon stopping not only the reproduction of the unfit but upon stopping all reproduction when there is not economic means of providing proper care for those who are born in health. …While I personally believe in the sterilization of the feeble-minded, the insane and syphilitic, I have not been able to discover that these measures are more than superficial deterrents when applied to the constantly growing stream of the unfit… Eugenics without Birth Control seems to us a house builded upon the sands. It is at the mercy of the rising stream of the unfit….

Sanger called for unfit to be sent to farms (Image credit Maafa21)

Sanger was highly motivated to stop the procreation by those she deemed “unfit.” In a personal letter to Katharine Dexter McCormick in 1950, Sanger called for “a simple, cheap, safe contraceptive to be used in poverty stricken slums, jungles, and among the most ignorant people.”

But, Sanger added, “Even this will not be sufficient, because I believe that now, immediately, there should be national sterilization for certain dysgenic types of our population who are being encouraged to breed and would die out were the government not feeding them.”

In 1932, Sanger also called for those who were poor (and those she considered to be “morons and immoral”) to be shipped to colonies where they would live in “Farms and Open Spaces” dedicated to brainwashing these so-called “inferior types” into having what Sanger called better “moral conduct.”  She specifically wanted to keep “immigration closed to the entrance of certain aliens whose condition is known to be detrimental to the stamina of the race.” (“A Plan for Peace,” by Margaret Sanger, published in Birth Control Review (BCR) April 1932, pp. 107-108)

Sanger was more than just a passive observer where eugenics was concerned; she was a member of the American Eugenics Society and even tried to unite her efforts and her publication with the eugenics movement.

Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger a member of the American Eugenics Society (image credit Maafa21)

This image below captures a letter entitled, “Shall the Birth Control Review be combined with a Eugenics Magazine?” written by Sanger.  It was published in the June 1928 edition of her Birth Control Review and it details her meeting (page 188) with American Eugenics Society representative, Leon Whitney, to merge her publication with that of the Eugenics Society. Whitney was the former Executive Secretary of the American Eugenics Society (AES) and Sanger published his writings in the Birth Control Review (BCR).

Of interest is that fact that, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was so influenced by Whitney that he sent him a letter complimenting him for a book he had written on sterilization.

Margaret Sanger to Merge ABCL with Eugenics

Sanger merge w eugenics

The New York Times recorded Sanger’s desire to unite with the eugenics movement as well, in an April 1, 1925, article:

Mrs. Margaret Sanger, founder of the American Birth Control League [ABCL], said that the league was ready to unite with the eugenic movement whenever the eugenists were able to present a definite program of standards for parenthood on a eugenic basis, rather than a eugenic ideal.

Another example where Sanger’s desire to unite with the eugenics movement can be seen is in this ABCL publication from 1935 (below), calling for a resolution that Sanger’s American Birth Control League (which later became Planned Parenthood), “unite with the American Eugenics Society.”

Sanger resolution to merge BCR with Eugenics

Sanger made certain that eugenics movers and shakers were deeply embedded in her organization, as Live Action News has previously documented. Below is a sample list of American Eugenics Society founders, leaders, and members who were a part of Margaret Sanger’s board or organizations:

American Eugenics Society members on Margaret Sanger's Board (image credit Maafa21)

American Eugenics Society members on Margaret Sanger’s Board (Image credit: Maafa21)

In addition to Sanger’s connections, Live Action News has documented that many of Planned Parenthood’s officials were members or leaders of the American Eugenics Society. (See a partial list here.)

PP’s Margaret Sanger Award

Since the 1960’s, Planned Parenthood has granted its infamous Margaret Sanger Award (calling it their top award) to people who benefit the organization’s cause.

Probably the most well-known recipient of the Margaret Sanger award in more recent times is Hillary Clinton, who said during her acceptance of the award that she “admired Margaret Sanger.” Republicans called her out for her comments, and Clinton responded by making disparaging remarks about Thomas Jefferson instead of repudiating Sanger’s push to eradicate the “unfit.” In the video below, Clinton pays homage to Sanger:

In 2014, then-Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi accepted the Margaret Sanger award, despite Sanger’s clear support for a hideous eugenic philosophy and associations with the Klan. Pelosi referred to the largest abortion corporation in the nation as an “outstanding organization,” suggesting that Sanger’s philosophy paved the ideology behind Planned Parenthood: “Out of this philosophy and outlook emerged the spirit and driving force of what would become known as the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.” Pelosi added, “To be associated with the great Margaret Sanger is a distinct privilege.”

Nancy Pelosi gets award named after Klan speaker, Margaret Sanger founder of Planned Parenthood

In 2004, the founder of CNN, Ted Turner, received the Margaret Sanger Award. The “honor” was mentioned in Planned Parenthood’s 2004 annual report:

2004 Margaret Sanger award to CNN Founder Ted Turner

Today, Planned Parenthood will defend their founder by pointing to civil rights giants like Martin Luther King, Jr., who also received the Margaret Sanger award. But the full picture and agenda of Sanger and her Planned Parenthood organization were not obvious to many in the Black community at that time, including MLK.

However, despite the suspicious timing of the award to MLK, many Black leaders have since spoken against the birth control and family planning agenda of Planned Parenthood, even calling abortion a form of “black genocide.”

Given this information and much more, when will the media demand recipients of this hideous award return it to Planned Parenthood? And, even more important, when will Congress cut ties with Planned Parenthood and stop sending them half a billion in tax dollars every year?

  • This article is reprinted with permission. The original appeared here at Live Action News.

Second state offers reparations to eugenic forced sterilization victims

Posted in Ernst Rudin, Eugenics in North Carolina, Eugenics in Virginia, Forced Sterilization, Reparations with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on March 4, 2015 by saynsumthn

On March 20, 1924 the Virginia General Assembly passed two racist laws “The Racial Integrity Act” and “The Sterilization Act

Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act was overseen by an avid eugenicist named Walter Ashby Plecker.

Plecker became a darling of the Eugenics movement and at one point he dined at the New York home of another famous eugenicist Harry H. Laughlin.

Laughlin was an official with both the American Eugenics Society and Planned Parenthood founder, Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League

Laughlin was also an unabashed Nazi sympathizer.

Harry Laughlin BCR Margaret Sanger

In 1932, Plecker gave a keynote speech at the Third International Conference on Eugenics in New York.

Among those in attendance was Ernst Rudin of Germany and in 1933, Rudin’s call for racial purity was published in Sanger’s Birth Control Review.

Ernst Rudin Eugenics Nazi Margaret Sanger Maafa21

Later, according to the documentary film, Maafa21, Rudin would be chosen by Hitler to write Germany’s eugenics laws and, at one point, he personally helped the Gestapo round-up and sterilize between 500 and 600 blacks who they referred to as “Rhineland bastards.” After the war, Rudin would be identified as one of the architects of the barbaric medical experiments that the Nazis carried out in their concentration camps.

Walter Ashby Plecker Eugenics racism Quote

When Hitler’s sterilizations were reported in the United States Plecker wrote a letter to the German Bureau of Human Betterment and Eugenics praising them for the action and expressing his hope that not one child had been missed.

Ten years earlier, Plecker had written that African-Americans were “the greatest problem and most destructive force which confronts the white race and American civilization.”

Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act played havoc on couples who wished to marry but were of different races. In June, 1958, two residents of Virginia, Mildred Jeter, a Black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were married in the District of Columbia pursuant to its laws. Shortly after their marriage, the Lovings returned to Virginia and established their marital abode in Caroline County. At the October Term, 1958, of the Circuit Court of Caroline County, a grand jury issued an indictment charging the Lovings with violating Virginia’s ban on interracial marriages.

On January 6, 199, the Lovings pleaded guilty to the charge, and were sentenced to one year in jail; however, the trial judge suspended the sentence for a period of 25 years on the condition that the Lovings leave the State and not return to Virginia together for 25 years.

Eugenical Sterilization Act

Between 1927 to 1979, Virginia sterilized about 8,000 people deemed unfit to reproduce for reasons such as mental illness, physical deformity or homelessness.

The Virginia Eugenical Sterilization Act declared that “heredity plays an important part in the transmission of insanity, idiocy, imbecility, epilepsy, and crime.”

The act was based on Harry Laughlin’s Model Law.

Harry Laughlin BCR

Laughlin was an official with both the American Eugenics Society and Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League and, in 1928, his plan for using forced sterilization to eliminate those who might produce what he called “degenerate offspring” was published in the Birth Control Review.

Just a few years prior, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Buck v. Bell, a case challenging Virginia’s eugenics sterilization law, a model law used by many other states to sterilize their people.

VA Eugenic Sterilization Law Upheld

In deciding Carrie Buck’s fate, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, wrote, “Carrie Buck is a feeble minded white woman who was committed to the State Colony above mentioned in due form. She is the daughter of a feeble minded mother in the same institution, and the mother of an illegitimate feeble minded child. She was eighteen years old at the time of the trial of her case in the Circuit Court, in the latter part of 1924. An Act of Virginia, approved March 20, 1924, recites that the health of the patient and the welfare of society may be promoted in certain cases by the sterilization of mental defectives, under careful safeguard, that the sterilization may be effected in males by vasectomy and in females by salpingectomy, without serious pain or substantial danger to life; that the Commonwealth is supporting in various institutions many defective persons who, if now discharged, would become a menace, but, if incapable of procreating, might be discharged with safety and become self-supporting with benefit to themselves and to society, and that experience has shown that heredity plays an important part in the transmission of insanity, imbecility…The statute then enacts that, whenever the superintendent of certain institutions, including the above-named State Colony, shall be of opinion that it is for the best interests of the patients and of society that an inmate under his care should be sexually sterilized, he may have the operation performed upon any patient afflicted with hereditary forms of insanity, imbecility…on complying with the very careful provisions by which the act protects the patients from possible abuse.”

Carrie-Emma-Buck

“The judgment finds the facts that have been recited, and that Carrie Buck “is the probable potential parent of socially inadequate offspring, likewise afflicted, that she may be sexually sterilized without detriment to her general health, and that her welfare and that of society will be promoted by her sterilization,” and thereupon makes the order.”

OliverWendallHolmes

Holmes went on to state, “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind … Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

According to the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, it is likely that Carrie’s mother, Emma Buck, was committed to a state institution because she was considered sexually promiscuous, that the same diagnosis was made about Carrie when she became an unwed mother at the age of 17 due to being raped, and that her daughter Vivian was diagnosed as “not quite normal” at the age of six months largely in support of the legal effort to sterilize Carrie.

The law was eventually overturned and in 2002, Virginia’s Governor apologized to the victims.

VA Gov Apologizes for Sterilization Eugenics

Now, the state of Virginia has decided to compensate the victims of forced sterilization and the General Assembly has set up a fund which should give $25,000 to each victim.

The appropriation makes Virginia the second state to take such action following North Carolina.

The North Carolina effort was due in part to the moving testimony of eugenics victim, Elaine Riddick. Her story has been captured in the film, Maafa21 available here wwa.maafa21.com

Eugenics victim to be compensated

Posted in Eugenics in North Carolina with tags , , , , , , , on June 9, 2014 by saynsumthn

Janice Black

Janice Black is one of more than 7600 people forcibly sterilized by the state between 1929 and 1974 because they were considered feeble-minded or “undesirable”. Some victims were as young as 10; Janice was 17 when she was sterilized against her will in 1971.

“I did want children, but they took care of that for me, so I could never have them,” Janice explained to WCNC.

For years Janice and her friend Sadie Gilmore Long have been trying to get the state to apologize for the Eugenics program.

“Not only to Janice, but all the other victims across North Carolina that are in the same boat as Janice is in,” explained Sadie.

Black was one of the last victims of the North Carolina Eugenics Board which disbanded in 1974. Black was 18 that year and living with her stepmother. She has a big smile and a contagious chuckle, but her developmental disabilities led the Eugenics Board to conclude that she wouldn’t be a fit parent and ordered her sterilized.

She kept it a secret until last year, when North Carolina state leaders began talking seriously about compensating eugenics victims. Speaking out was cathartic for Black.

“It kind of gave me some relief – like getting a monkey off your back,” she says, chuckling. No amount of money can make it right, but she says what the state has done now – “it helps some,” she told WFAE.

Two weeks ago, on Janice’s birthday, she received a letter from the state confirming her claim had been approved.

“I was excited, not for myself, but for her, and we jumped around the hallways and praised the glory of God,” recalled Sadie.

Janice was happy, but said it didn’t take away the pain.

“I don’t have anything against the money or anything like that, but it’s not going to bring back what they took away.”

Janice doesn’t know how much money she’ll receive yet; that depends on how many verified claims there are. So far, less than 500 have applied, and the state has only passed on 281 claims to be reviewed by a commission.

Eugenic sterilization programs existed in America in at least 31 states. Many of the women forced or coerced into sterilization were black.

From 1929 to 1974, the state of North Carolina forcibly sterilized thousands of people who were deemed to be mentally handicapped, promiscuous or unfit to have children.

Life Dynamics has documented the history of the American Eugenics Society including North Carolina’s forced sterilization program in our film, Maafa21: Black Genocide in 21st Century America.

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Blacks sterilized by eugenics program funded by Margaret Sanger supporter

Posted in Clarence Gamble, Elaine Riddick, Eugenics in North Carolina, Eugenics Review, Life Dynamics, Margaret Sanger and AES, North Carolina Eugenics with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 11, 2014 by saynsumthn

Maafa21 logo by Life Dynamics originally published here

Apr 11, 2014 10:57:00 AM

Eugenic sterilization programs existed in America in at least 31 states. Many of the women forced or coerced into sterilization were black.

From 1929 to 1974, the state of North Carolina forcibly sterilized thousands of people who were deemed to be mentally handicapped, promiscuous or unfit to have children.

Life Dynamics has documented the history of the American Eugenics Society including North Carolina’s forced sterilization program in their film, Maafa21: Black Genocide in 21st Century America.

Eugenics Society member, Margaret Sanger, who later founded Planned Parenthood, also advocated sterilization of the so-called unfit.

In 1950 Sanger advocated eugenic sterilization in a personal letter she wrote to Katharine Dexter McCormick, an heir to the International Harvester fortune who used her immense wealth to fund the development of the birth-control pill.

Sanger wrote, “I consider that the world and almost our civilization for the next twenty-five years, is going to depend upon a simple, cheap, safe contraceptive to be used in poverty stricken slums, jungles, and among the most ignorant people. Even this will not be sufficient, because I believe that now, immediately; there should be national sterilization for certain dysgenic types of our population who are being encouraged to breed and would die out were the government not feeding them.”

Sanger I Consider

Sanger’s connections to eugenics was nothing new. She had long praised their ideologies and published several articles on the topic in her Birth Control Review.

In 1935, Sanger’s American Birth Control League published a resolution to unite with the American Eugenics Society.

Sanger 1935abcl-eugenics

Mark Crutcher, President of Life Dynamics elaborates, “These ties between eugenics and Planned Parenthood’s founder were so well established that Sanger, who was a long standing member of the American Eugenics Society, once pursued a plan to merge the American Birth Control League, or Planned Parenthood as it was later called, with the American Eugenics Society. However, despite Sanger’s strong support for the merger, it would eventually be rejected by the leadership of the American Eugenics Society. Sanger then pushed a proposal that would have combined the publications of the two organizations into one magazine. But again, that idea was also rejected by the American Eugenics Society.”

In 1939, Sanger described the American Birth Control League’s Negro Project in a letter to fellow eugenicist, Clarence Gamble, “The minister’s work is also important and also he should be trained, perhaps by the Federation as to our ideals and the goal that we hope to reach. We do not want the word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members.”

SangerNegroQuote

Gamble was a heir to the Proctor and Gamble fortune and a major financial backer of Sanger’s.

Gamble was also a director of Margaret Sanger’s American Birth Control League, which later changed its name to Planned Parenthood.

Gamble Sterilization EU

In 1947, Gamble called for the expansion of North Carolina’s State’s sterilization program saying that for every feeble minded person sterilized, 40 more were polluting and degrading the bloodlines of future generation with their defective genes.

Research from North Carolina’s Winston-Salem Journal reveals a long history of abuses in the N.C. sterilization program — abuses that Gamble consistently glossed over. According to the Journal, “Gamble wanted sterilizations to increase rather than decrease, and increase they did.”

But merely wanting the sterilizations to happen was not enough for this Margaret Sanger supporter. Clarence Gamble put his money where his eugenics views were and actually funded the North Carolina Eugenics Board that sterilized many blacks, including 14 year old Elaine Riddick.

This is her story excerpted from Life Dynamics’ film: Maafa21:

Shortly after this interview in Maafa21, Elaine Riddick testified before the North Carolina State Legislature in a successful effort to receive compensation for the sterilization.

They cut me open like I was a hog,” Elaine Riddick testified tearfully, “I didn’t even know nothing about this stuff.”

Riddick told the lawmakers that her only crime was being poor, BLACK, and from a bad home environment.

North Carolina was not the only state whose eugenics programs were influenced by friends of Sanger or Planned Parenthood. In some parts of the country, Planned Parenthood was closely associated with these state eugenics boards and was often a referral agency for them.
PP Eugenics Tree
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In fact, documents from eugenics publications reveal that ‪later, as Sanger’s American Birth Control League morphed into Planned Parenthood they received rent free space from ‪the Eugenics Society.

A fact which is rarely reported is that, in many places, Planned Parenthood was one and the same as the Eugenics Society.

For example, when the first birth control clinic was opened in Arkansas, it was operated by the Arkansas Eugenics Association and overseen by a woman named Hilda Cornish.
Hilda Cornish ARK eugenics Society letter

Later the Arkansas Eugenics Association would become the Arkansas State Affiliate of Planned Parenthood and Cornish would be named its executive director.

Planned Parenthood ARK eugenics society

Supporters and directors of Margaret Sanger were, like her, entrenched in eugenics. Sanger’s backers knew that they were promoting views that would limit the population of a certain group or race of people, primarily African Americans. Their eugenics agenda reached into the lives of innocent and unsuspecting victims like Elaine Riddick with programs of coerced sterilization. But Elaine represents merely a fraction of the black women affected by eugenics.

Over the years the names of these organizations may have changed but their eugenics agenda remains the same and are targeting more unsuspecting people today.

Elaine Riddick

Euphemisms and sterilization target code words, for example, “feebleminded”, were used to describe Black women like me, Elaine Riddick. I was forcibly sterilized at the age of 14 years under North Carolina’s inhumane forced sterilization policy. A policy that was derived from Margaret Sanger’s Planned Parenthood population control handbook, which spread across the United States by her loyal band of eugenicists and lobbying our elected officials,” Elaine Riddick wrote recently.

For more on the forced sterilization of Black women and the eugenics movement, watch Maafa21.

For more on Life Dynamics go here http://www.lifedynamics.com