Archive for the Abortion stats Category

Analysis: As government funding increases, so do Planned Parenthood’s abortions

Posted in Abortion stats, Guttmacher, Planned Parenthood abortion numbers, Planned Parenthood abortion stats, Planned Parenthood adoption referral with tags , , , , , , , , , , on January 7, 2016 by saynsumthn

An analysis of annual reports published by Planned Parenthood for the past 15 years has revealed that as government funding for the organization increased, Planned Parenthood’s share of the country’s abortions also increased. Since 2000, Planned Parenthood has performed over four million abortions and received almost $5 billion in federal tax dollars.

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Over 55% of abortions reported for race/ethnicity performed on Black or Hispanic women, 2012

Posted in 20 Week abortion ban, Abortion and Racism, Abortion Numbers, Abortion Racism, Abortion stats with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on November 28, 2015 by saynsumthn

A new report on abortion stats published by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicates that abortions have decreased in the last year, a trend that has continued for the past 25 years but sadly remains disproportionately high among minorities. Because abortion reporting requirements vary from state to state, the numbers do not represent all abortions performed in the United States.

CDC Abortions numbers 2012 reported 2015

According to the latest data, published November 27, 2015, abortions fell by more than 30,000 from the previous year. In 2012, 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC, down 31,120 from the 730,322 abortions reported in 2011. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003–2012).

AGE

The stats also showed that women in their 20’s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates. However teens less than 15 years-old accounted for .4% of the reported numbers while those 15–19 years accounted for 12.2% of all abortions. From 2003 to 2012, the percentage of abortions accounted for by adolescents aged 15–19 years decreased 27% and their abortion rate decreased 40%. The numbers reflects polling data which shows that support for making abortion broadly illegal is growing fastest among young adults. In fact, for all Millennials in 2012, only 37% considered abortion morally acceptable.

RACE

Research shows that family planning centers and abortion facilities often set up their locations in or near minority communities. In addition, the largest provider of abortions, Planned Parenthood was founded by a radical advocate of racist eugenics. As a result, the numbers of abortions performed on minorities and specifically Black women remain disproportionately high.

In 2011, the CDC revealed that almost 56% of all abortions reported for race were done on minority women. According to the latest report dated November 27,2015, in 2012, over 55% of abortions reported for race/ethnicity were performed on Black or Hispanic women.

CDC Abortions black hispanic

Among the 27 areas that reported abortions by race/ethnicity , non-Hispanic white women and non-Hispanic black women accounted for the largest percentages of abortions. According to the 2012 stats, Black women had the highest abortion rate (27.8 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years) and accounted for 36.7% of abortions reported for race/ethnicity while 18.7% of abortions were reported for Hispanic women. White women accounted for a slightly higher abortion percentage, 37.6% of reported abortions, but had the lowest abortion rate (7.7 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years).

In several states, Black Abortions reported for race broke down as follows:

Abortions on Black women 2012

Mississippi 63.6%
Georgia 59.5%
Tennessee 51.1%
Alabama 48.8%
North Carolina 47.6%
Delaware 43.4%
Michigan 48.2%
Virginia 43.9%
Missouri 41.1%
South Carolina 40.6%
Arkansas 39.7%
New York 39.7% (44.1% in New York City alone)
Ohio 39%
New Jersey 30.2%
Kentucky 25.8%
Texas 25.2%
Minnesota 23.6%
Kansas 22.5%
Indiana 27.6%
West Virginia 9.5%
South Dakota 9.3%
Colorado 7.2%
Oregon 5.9%
Utah 3.2%
Idaho 1.5%
Montana .8%

Abortions on Hispanic women 2012

Texas 37.9%
New York 27.5% (32.3% in New York City alone)
Colorado 23%
New Jersey 22.7%
Alabama 19.4%
Utah 18.2%
Idaho 15.5%
Oregon 11.7%
Delaware 11.4%
Virginia 11%
North Carolina 10.3%
Kansas 10.3%
Georgia 8.6%
Indiana 8.3%
Minnesota 6.6%
Arkansas 5.3%
South Carolina 5.1%
Ohio 4.2 %
Tennessee 4.2%
South Dakota 3.6%
Michigan 3.5%
Kentucky 3.5%
Montana 3.4%
Missouri 2.8%
Mississippi 1.7%
West Virginia .3%

GESTATION

babyat20weeks

The largest numbers of abortions were performed in the early trimester. However, over 6.000 abortions were performed at 21 weeks or greater. A 2014 report published by the Lozier Institute found that the United States is one of only seven countries in the world that permit elective abortion past 20 weeks. Efforts to ban abortions after 20 weeks have been opposed by the abortion industry, specifically Planned Parenthood. While Planned Parenthood publicly claims that abortions late in pregnancy are done mainly for severe fetal anomalies, undercover videos by The Center for Medical Progress disputed that claim. Live Action News has documented this contradiction in detail here.

According to the 2012 stats, only 467,959 abortions were reported to the CDC by gestation and broke down by weeks as follows:

    Less than 8 weeks 308,058
    9-13 weeks 119,994
    14-15 weeks 16,274
    16-17 weeks 8,641
    18-20 weeks 8,812
    21 weeks and older 6,180

The CDC has been collecting stats on abortion since 1969 and data includes medical as well as surgical abortions. Although most reporting areas collect and send abortion data to the CDC, the data remains incomplete and stats that are submitted to the CDC are done voluntarily. In addition, the stats do not include abortions from every state including some states that tend to have high numbers of abortion clinics. But the yearly stats from the numbers that are collected indicate that abortions are decreasing.

This was confirmed by the Associated Press who surveyed abortion providers in 45 states earlier this year. Their data collected mostly from 2013 and 2014 found that abortions continued to fall in those years. According to the AP, declines were seen in states that have passed pro-life laws as well as in more liberal states.

Abortion stats 2013

Posted in Abortion Numbers, Abortion stats, Planned Parenthood 990, Planned Parenthood abortion numbers, Planned Parenthood abortion stats, Planned Parenthood Tax Dollars with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 16, 2015 by saynsumthn

In 2013, Planned Parenthood reported performing 327,653 abortions.

planned-parenthood-2013-to-2014-abortion-stats-federal-money

In addition, the abortion giant recorded receiving $528.4 million dollars in federal tax money, according to that same 2013 to 2014 annual report.

This number of babies reported killed by abortion at Planned Parenthood in the 2013-2014 report was an increase from the 2012-2013 number of 327,166 and a slight decrease from their 2011 to 2012 numbers of 333,964.

In 2012-Planned Parenthood reported performing 327,166 abortions. (more here)

Planned Parenthood abortion numbers 2012 stats

In 2011, Planned Parenthood reported performing 333,964 abortions for the year 2011-2012, according to their annual report. (Source: Planned Parenthood annual report 2011-2012 – released June 2012)

(MORE: in 2011, Planned Parenthood performed one-third of all abortions but in the past 10 years they have performed 25% of abortions reported.) see here.

2012 stats to be published here.

To date, the CDC nor Guttmacher has released their 2013 abortion numbers – the latest reports are from 2011 and can be viewed here.

Planned Parenthood abortion numbers for past years – here.

Planned Parenthood Annual Report Totals – Abortion Totals:

2013 – 327,653

2012-327,166

2011– 333,964

2010 – 329,445

2009 – 331,796

2008 – 324,008

2007 – 305,310

2006 – 289,750

2005 – 264,943

2004 – 255,015

2003 – 244,628

2002– 230,630

2001– 213,026

2000 – 197,070

Center for Disease Control abortion totals USA:

2012 – 699,202

2011 – 1.06 million abortions (Guttmacher)

2010– 765,651

2009 – 784,507

2008 – 825,564 ( While Guttmacher reports – 1.21 million in 2008)

2007 – 827,609

2006 – 846,181

2005 – 820,151

2004 -839,226

2003 – 848,163

2002– 854,122

2001 – 853,485

2000 – 857,475

Abortion Stats – 2012

Posted in Abortion Numbers, Abortion stats, Planned Parenthood 990, Planned Parenthood abortion numbers, Planned Parenthood annual report with tags , , , , , , , , , on April 16, 2015 by saynsumthn

In 2012-Planned Parenthood reported performing 327,166 abortions.

Planned Parenthood abortion numbers 2012 stats

pp-2012-2013-annual-report

In 2011, Planned Parenthood reported performing 333,964 abortions for the year 2011-2012, according to their annual report. (Source: Planned Parenthood annual report 2011-2012 – released June 2012)

(MORE: in 2011, Planned Parenthood performed one-third of all abortions but in the past 10 years they have performed 25% of abortions reported.) see here.

As of the date this post was published, Planned Parenthood released 2013 abortion figures.

2013 – 327,653

According to the latest data, published November 27, 2015 from the Center of Disease Control, abortions fell by more than 30,000 from the previous year. In 2012, 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC, down 31,120 from the 730,322 abortions reported in 2011. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003–2012). More here.

To date, the Guttmacher has released their 2012 abortion numbers – the latest reports are from 2011 and can be viewed here.

Planned Parenthood abortion numbers for past years – here.

2013 stats to be published here.

Abortion Stats 2011

Posted in Abortion death, Abortion Numbers, Abortion stats, CDC, Guttmacher, Planned Parenthood 990, Planned Parenthood abortion numbers with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 16, 2015 by saynsumthn

PLANNED PARENTHOOD 2011

PP 2011 abortions

In 2011, Planned Parenthood reported performing 333,964 abortions for the year 2011-2012, according to their annual report. (Source: Planned Parenthood annual report 2011-2012 – released June 2012)

(MORE: in 2011, Planned Parenthood performed one-third of all abortions but in the past 10 years they have performed 25% of abortions reported.) see here.

As of the date this post was published, Planned Parenthood released 2012 and 2013 abortion figures.

2013 – 327,653

2012-327,166

CDC – 2011

2011 CDC

CDC Abortion Stats 2011

The CDC Abortion Surveillance Report dated November 28, 2014 reveals that in 2011 730,322 abortions were reported to the CDC down 35,329 from 2010 stats.

CDC Black Abortion Stats 2011

The CDC excludes abortion data from some states like California which performs a huge number of abortions nationwide.

CDC Abortion stats excludes Ca

2011 CDC Black Abortions – Total 146,856 (36.2%)

Among the 27 areas that reported cross-classified race/ ethnicity data for 2011 (Table 12), non-Hispanic white women and non-Hispanic black women accounted for the largest percentages of abortions (37.2% and 36.2%, respectively), and Hispanic women and non-Hispanic women in the other race category accounted for smaller percentages (19.7% and 7.0%, respectively). Non-Hispanic white women had the lowest abortion rate (8.0 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years) and ratio (132 abortions per 1,000 live births), and non-Hispanic black women had the highest abortion rate (29.7 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years) and ratio
(459 abortions per 1,000 live births).

According to the stats 7.3% of unborn babies killed by abortion were between 14–20 weeks’ gestation and 1.4% were 21 weeks’ gestation or greater.

That means that, according to CDC numbers:

    53,313 unborn babies were aborted between 14-20 weeks

    and

    10,224 were 21 weeks or greater.

But, a chart published by the CDC for 39 states that reported abortions by gestation (520,304 of the 730,322 abortion reported) in 2011 show that in those 39 states:

    335,748 abortions were performed at less than 8 weeks
    139,775 abortions were performed at 9-13 weeks gestation
    17,952 abortions were performed at 14-15 weeks gestation
    9,795 abortions were performed at 16-17 weeks gestation
    9,709 abortions were performed at 18-20 weeks gestation
    7,325 abortions were performed at 21 weeks gestation or greater.

CDC ABortion stats by gestation

ABORTION DEATHS-CDC

Abortion Deaths CDC 2011

According to the CDC, “Deaths of women associated with complications from abortions for 2011 are being investigated as part of CDC’s Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. In 2010, the most recent year for which data were available, 10 women were identified to have died as a result of complications from known legal induced abortions. No reported deaths were associated with known illegal induced abortions.”

However, pro-lifers continue to document women killed from legal abortion here.

2011 GUTTMACHER

In 2011, Guttmacher, whose stats were released in March of 2014, reports that 1.06 million abortions were performed. Does not break down by race !

But a Facts on Abortion sheet Guttmacher published in July in 2014 – race is mentioned:

Guttmacher abortion 2011

( July 2014)

Guttmacher Abortion Race 2011 Black Hispanic

Non-Hispanic white women account for 36% of abortions, non-Hispanic black women for 30%, Hispanic women for 25% and women of other races for 9%

More here https://saynsumthn.wordpress.com/2014/12/01/one-out-of-three-abortions-performed-in-us-by-planned-parenthood/

4.4 million Blacks dead because of eugenic and racist abortion

Posted in Abortion stats, Black Abortion Stats, Black Genocide, Black History Month, Black Lives Matter with tags , , , , , , , on February 11, 2015 by saynsumthn

4.4 million Blacks killed by abortion over the 22 years between 1990 and 2011.

abortion_is_black_genocide_10_sticker_rectangle

That translates to 200,069 black children each year, 548 black abortions each day or 22 abortions every hour, or about 1 every three minutes.

CNS News broke down the stats:

Those numbers are broken down as white, black, other, and Hispanic. For every year 1990 – 2011, the total number of “reported abortions” in black females were as follows:

1990 204,832 black abortions

1991 222,015

1992 228,280

1993 226,829

1994 226,323

1995 205,442

1996 207,831

1997 212,144

1998 218,344

1999 210,859

2000 214,212

2001 112,451

2002 206,973

2003 215,051

2004 209,603

2005 203,991

2006 219,598

2007 212,664

2008 194,694

2009 154,266

2010 148,261

2011 146,856

Total: 4,401,519 black abortions

Learn more about the racism of abortion by watching Maafa21.

Reducing abortions is there an abortion change?

Posted in Abortion decreasing, Abortion Numbers, Abortion pill, Abortion reporting, Abortion stats, AHA, CDC, Guttmacher, Medication Abortion, Morning After Pill, Non-Surgical abortion, Plan B, RU-486 with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 11, 2015 by saynsumthn

Anti-abortion activists who “claim” that abortions are not decreasing have neither the documentation nor the knowledge to prove their claims.

One such pro-life “claim” was refuted recently by Jill Stanek on her blog which you can read here.

The argument is that medical abortion as opposed to surgical abortion are somehow not counted in the overall abortion stats which then contradicts statements by pro-life leaders who say that abortions are decreasing in United States.

Mifeprex -ABORTION-PILL-082713

Of all the people I have heard use this bogus claim, no one offers a single study to back it up.

In addition, they fail to mention that medical abortions are counted in the overall abortion stats where abortion reporting is required.

It is important to note that medical abortions never went OTC because of popularity – this happened because of politics plain and simple.

The early medical abortion, RU486 or mifepristone was not approved for use in the US until Sept 2000.

So how do they account or the drop in abortions prior to those dates?

The chemical abortion, Plan B, regarded by the FDA as a “emergency contraction”, was first approved in July 2009 for use without a prescription for women age 17 and older and as a prescription-only option for women younger than age 17. In April 2013, the product was approved for nonprescription use for women as young as 15. In June of 2013, Plan B became available to women and girls of all ages.

Although, it might be true that some chemicals labeled “contraception” which are abortive, may not be included in the abortion numbers – it is also true that this has always been the case.

For example, if emergency contraception is counted as “birth control” and not “abortion” that does not negate the fact that abortions are on the decrease.

Because emergency contraception (also called “morning after pills” or “day after pills”) is only effective up to 5 days after having sex and Plan B must be taken within 72 hours of sexual intercourse to be effective, it may be true that some women who take EC or Plan B are pregnant – but- it may also be true that some are not pregnant – a fact we will never know.

Just as it is true that the birth control pill and other forms of “contraception” may also be abortive, their numbers have never been included in the overall abortion stats.

What we are looking at is “trends.”

Prior to Roe, women were not seeking abortions by the millions like they do today.

After abortion was legalized it is true that abortion numbers rose.

However, according to stats, abortions peaked in 1990 (around then) and after groups like Operation Rescue and others took to the streets – they went on a downward trend which continues to this day.

According to the CDC:

    following nationwide legalization of abortion in 1973, the total number, rate (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years), and ratio (number of abortions per 1,000 live births) of reported abortions increased rapidly, reaching the highest levels in the 1980s before decreasing at a slow yet steady pace . However, the incidence of abortion has varied considerably across demographic subpopulations (5–9). Moreover, during 2006–2008, an interruption occurred in the previously sustained pattern of decrease, but was then followed in subsequent years by even greater decreases.

We used to have almost 2200 abortion clinics in America and according to a 2014 analysis by Operation Rescue which tracks abortion clinics closures, the total number of all remaining abortion clinics in the US is currently 739. Surgical abortion facilities account for 551 of that total while the number of medication-only abortion facilities stands at 188.

How can the majority of abortions be medical when the majority of clinics are surgical?

Abortion restrictions limit abortion access and reduce abortion numbers.

Guttmacher ab restrictions

We know that legalization makes abortion “appear” acceptable – which in turn increases them. We know from studying trends that when abortion became legalized, for example the numbers of African American women who had abortions went way up. We also know from studies that if an abortion clinic is within certain miles of a woman seeking abortion that her decision to have the abortion increases. All those factors change when the abortion clinic is closed.

Trends for example in the African American community show that not only did legalization increase abortion so did access.

Studies from the CDC show that, prior to legalization, approximately 80% of all illegal abortions were done on white women. One study in New York even found that white women had five-times as many abortions as black women.

But, at the moment abortion became legal, that began to reverse.

In 1973, researchers within the abortion movements were documenting that easy access to abortion clinics produces higher abortion rates in the surrounding area. And at least one expert discovered that having a nearby clinic is a bigger factor in the black abortion rate than it is in the while abortion rate.

In a 1999 paper published by the American Journal of Public Health Phillip B. Levine, Douglas Staigei; along with Thomas J. Kane and David J. Zimnmerman, entitled, Roe v Wade and American Fertility, the group points out that when abortions are made legal, fertility rates drop with a reduction in births of teens and non-White women to be the largest.

Phillip B Levine Roe v Wade and American Fertility

Estimates show that births to non-White women in repeal states (vs states with no law change) fell by 12% just following repeal, more than 3 times the effect on White women’s fertility,” that paper states.

Effect of abortion on Black births

The group also concluded that there was an important connection between the fall of birth rates in states where abortion was accessible vs. states where it was not, “The results indicate that travel between states to obtain abortions was important. Births in repeal states fell by almost 11% relative to births in nonrepeal states more than 750 miles away but only by 4.5% relative to births in states less than 250 miles away and those in states between 250 and 750 miles away,” the authors write.

What this shows is the reverse is also true. Closing abortion clinics will reduce abortions overall.

Abortion advocates know that when abortion access i.e. the closing of local abortion clinics takes place- fewer women have abortions.

Many reasons for women NOT to get a medical abortion.

According to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology women prefer surgical abortions, “Generally, women are satisfied with the method they choose but, when randomized, prefer surgical abortion to medical abortion, ACOG says.

    When women choose medical abortion they choose them because of a desire to avoid surgery, a perception that medical abortion is safer than surgical abortion, and a belief that medical abortion is more natural and private than a surgical procedure.

    However, compared with surgical abortion, medical abortion takes longer to complete, requires more active patient participation, and is associated with higher reported rates of bleeding and cramping.

ACOG medical versus chemical abortion

    With medical abortion, expulsion of the products of conception [i.e. the unborn baby], most likely will occur at home, but a few women will still require surgical evacuation to complete the abortion. An early surgical abortion takes place most commonly in one visit and involves less waiting and less doubt about when the abortion occurs compared with medical abortion. In addition, women who undergo surgical abortion will not see any products of conception [or fetal body parts] or blood clots during the procedure.

Given this data, it is a marketing ploy by the for-profit abortion lobby to give an impression that many abortions are “non-cutting” or non-surgical. That is because “Surgery” scares clients.

However- the use of the term non-surgical abortion does not imply that they are medical as Randall K. O’Bannon, Ph.D at National Right to Life explains:

    Clinics are obviously trying to address and assuage these fears. On the one hand they explicitly try to argue in their descriptions of the procedures that “no cutting is involved” (Aaron’s Women’s Clinic, Houston TX). Or they can say that in a vacuum aspiration “There is NO cutting or scraping of the uterus” (Northside Women’s Clinic, Atlanta, GA).

    The South Jersey Women’s Center still calls these surgical abortions (which they are), but tries to distinguish these from ordinary surgical procedures. “No cutting or incision is necessary and the procedure takes only 5 to 7 minutes.”

    Planned Parenthood avoids the term “surgical” and tries to call these “In-Clinic Abortion Procedures.”

    New York OB/GYN AssociatesTM classifies these as “Non-Surgical Abortions” because they “do not involve any scraping or scarring of the uterus.” They say that “There is no cutting during an Aspiration Abortion.” They maintain that “There is no scraping, no scaring and no damage to the uterine wall.”
    Both the chemical and aspiration methods they advertise “are designed to naturally release a woman’s pregnancy in a gentle and safe way, which does not cause damage.”

    However there is more to this than just calming fears and apprehensions. The abortion industry has found it increasingly difficult to find doctors willing to perform abortions or to add abortion to their practices. By re-defining the abortion procedure as “non-surgical,” this opens up the performance of abortion to a whole new set of medical practitioners.

    Promoters of the idea that these are “non-surgical” try to employ the rationale that because they do not cut tissue to enter the woman’s body but enter through the birth canal, these are somehow, strictly speaking, not surgery.

What the increase of medical abortions show is that abortions are occurring earlier, not that more are happening.

As of 2008 medical abortions comprised around 15-16% of abortions.

In 2011, the CDC reported that at ≤8 weeks’ gestation, early medical abortion accounted for 28.5% of abortions, but at all subsequent points in gestation the use of medications to induce abortions through nonsurgical methods accounted for only 0.6%–5.3% of reported abortions.

CDC 2011 Surgical and Medical abortion state

A July 2014 report by Guttmacher said that in 2011, medication abortion accounted for 23% of all nonhospital abortions and 36% of abortions before nine weeks’ gestation a similar figure to the CDC.

Guttmacher Medical Abortions 2011

Early medication abortions have increased from 6% of all abortions in 2001 to 23% in 2011, even while the overall number of abortions continued to decline, Guttmacher reports.

(NOTE: Medication and nonsurgical abortions numbers are reflected in Guttmachers overall abortion totals.)

REPORTING

Having said all of that, I do agree that not all abortions are reported – but – as I document above- they never have been.

What we are using to determine that abortions are declining is stats that have been in place since the 1970’s.

An analogy by Troy Newman, president of Operation Rescue, reveals the nonsense of critics of the pro-life movement by comparing stats on abortion numbers to other statistics we commonly reference, “How do they know robbery and murder rates are down? Those are just stats also,” he told Saynsumthn.

Newman points out that there are many ways to steal online and those thefts may not get counted.

In addition, Newman says that people can be murdered in ways that don’t look like murder, “Does that mean that the “anti-murder” crowd and the “anti-robbery crowd” need to do a better job and stop quoting published crime stats?” he asked.

Take polls for example, they do not sample all people but are a proven indication of trends. If you do not use any source for your abortion stats how can you then make the claim from that – nothing has changed?

So, even though an argument can be made that every abortion is not reported, that does not prove that abortions are not decreasing in numbers.

Know this, that had it not been for pro-life legislation, pro-life counselors outside abortion clinics, undercover efforts to expose doctors and clinics the numbers would be much higher no matter how you look at it. This is not a complete victory – but it is a reason to push all the harder to banish abortion from our land.

No one has ever claimed that ALL abortions are reported however the baseline is consistent.

Whatever the real number – pro-lifers have the testimony of many women who have chosen life as a source as well.

I have been in this fight for 32 years and no person who is recently interested in the unborn will EVER convince me that we have not saved lives and made a difference.

You can try to re-write history if you want to, but some of us lived this history and until we are dead we will testify to the changes we have witnessed.